Browse by Topic: Aquinas

Br. Thomas Aquinas Pickett, O.P.'s picture


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William George Jordan, the editor of The Saturday Evening Post, wrote in 1902, "Ingratitude is a crime more despicable than revenge, which is only returning evil for evil, while ingratitude returns evil for good." St. Thomas Aquinas, commenting on St. Paul’s letter to the Philippians, writes, "A person who is ungrateful for past benefits does not deserve to receive new ones." But why do these thinkers denigrate a lack of thankfulness? In a time when we are raised to believe that it is our right to have food, clothes, a college education, a car, information, and a well-paying job; that it is our right to express ourselves, to choose what to do, to believe whatever we want, and to seek our own meaning in life; then being thankful does not seem to have any place in our lives. Why should we be grateful for the things that are simply due to us? What place does thankfulness have in life, if any place at all?

If we consider thankfulness, we find that it is essentially recognizing a good thing that has been given to us freely. We are grateful to the friend who goes out of her way to give us a compliment or bake us cookies. We are not grateful, however, to the employer who gives us extra work for the weekend, or to a roommate who gives us a cold. Being thankful simply means seeing something as good, and seeing that good as coming from a person who is not obliged to give it. To give thanks is merely to express this recognition. To be ungrateful, then, is to receive a freely-given good, without recognizing it as such.

Aquinas notes, interestingly, that it is characteristic of a good person to see good more than to see evil (cf. ST II-II.106.3 ad 2). Aquinas therefore equates our moral life with how we see the world. The good person, i.e., the moral person, actually sees the world differently than a wicked person does. The moral person who is a Christian, moreover, sees that all the good things in the world have been created, sustained, and given to us by God. The Christian, therefore, ought to be defined by gratitude! As St. Paul exhorts us, “give thanks in all circumstances” (1 Thess. 5:18, RSV).

To be ungrateful is to lack moral character. When we believe everything is owed to us, then there is something fundamentally wrong with our relationship to God, to our neighbors, and even to ourselves. Ingratitude is the product of the solipsism that is born from materialism and practical atheism. Ingratitude is the characteristic of people who live merely for themselves, and whose hearts, like the Grinch, are closed to the good of another.

As Christians we must strive to see God’s goodness in the world, and we must strive to be thankful for it. We must realize that salvation, grace, the sacraments, and the Church are not things that God owes us; they are gifts given to sinners who do not deserve them, by a God who so loved the world that he gave his only Son (cf. John 3:16). We must also remember that the Eucharist literally means “thanksgiving” -- and so we who share in the Body and Blood of Christ, who have union with God and with our brothers and sisters in the Church, must never fail to recognize that all we have, and all we are, comes to us as a gift from God the Father. And for this, we must always celebrate thanksgiving. 


Br. Chris Brannan, O.P.'s picture

A Little Lower than the Angels

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"What is man that you are mindful of him, the son of man that you care for him? Yet you have made him little less than a god, crowned him with glory and honor. You have given him rule over the works of your hands, put all things at his feet: All sheep and oxen, even the beasts of the field, the birds of the air, the fish of the sea, and whatever swims the paths of the seas. O LORD, our Lord, how awesome is your name through all the earth!" – Psalm 8:5-10

There is perhaps nothing quite as perplexing, or important, in our contemporary age as the question, "Who am I?" This can be seen, if only implicitly, in the often existential, if not openly nihilistic, lyrics in popular music; in the various sub-cultures among teenagers searching for their identity; or behind heated political debates about freedom and rights in our own country. Yet not often, in public, is the question asked directly: What does it mean to be a human being? What is man? The psalmist asks this very question, noticing both man's humble stature and his glorious destiny. He is a little lower than the angels, yet crowned with glory and honor. Yet even in pointing out his humble stature, we can see an insight into human nature's dignity: the human being is, indeed, "a little lower than the angels" or "less than gods,"1 but this very comparison is itself telling: the Psalmist does not say, "He is a little greater than the beasts;" rather, the comparison is made with angels or gods. The comparison itself speaks of our rather high stature. St. Thomas Aquinas, in his commentary on this Psalm, notes how it is that angels and human beings are both similar and different:

"The image of God is found in the angels by the simple intuition of truth, without any inquiry; but in humans discursively: and therefore in man only in a certain small degree. This is why humans are called angels [in Malachi 2]... And, man is corruptible, but in a certain way; since, at a certain time, man will know all things without discursive thought in his homeland (heaven); and he will be incorruptible in the way of his body."2

So we are comparable to the angels in bearing in ourselves the image of God via our intellectual powers, although we differ in the limited, temporal way that reason works, and – of course – by our 'natural' corruptibility.

In a similar vein, in my metaphysics class I recently read an article by James Lehrberger commenting on Thomas Aquinas' account of human nature as seen in one of his earlier writings, De Ente et Essentia.3 Lehrberger argues that Thomas does not see the traditional Aristotelian definition of the human being – a "rational animal" as the final word or the most complete description of the human being. Instead, he argues that this physical definition (pertaining to the natural philosophy of Aristotle), stands alongside a more complete metaphysical account of the human being which holds that man is an incarnate spirit. That is, while the soul of man can be logically or physically categorized, on the one hand, with the souls of living things (and, more generally, with the forms of material bodies), it can also be (metaphysically) categorized with "separate intelligences" (i.e., angelic beings). In the first case, we see man as another being in the material world; in the second, he lives in the realm of spiritual beings. Yet we can see that neither account alone suffices; man does not belong only to the earth; nor, simply, to heaven. He dwells between heaven and earth, with a foot, so to speak, planted firmly in each realm.

We are, in fact, incarnate spirits, "links" or "bridges" between the merely physical realm and the purely spiritual realm. We live among rivers, rocks, trees, and cattle; yet we also live among – and have powers comparable to – angels. We are a little less than gods. If only we might recognize this unique role we fill, and try neither to be simply angels, or beasts, but rather incarnate spirits, embodied intelligences, displaying the image and glory of God in a bodily form, connecting heaven and earth. If we live as such, and recognize our place in the created order, we can look both at the earth as our natural mother, and heaven as our intended home.

And then we can see Christ, "crowned with glory and honor", having been given "all authority in heaven and earth" (Matt 28:18), as the one who has has brought about that most marvelous union between heaven and earth which is proper to man, but had been hindered by sin; the one who has done even more than this – for in heaven this glorified man is no longer "a little lower than the angels", but now is "far superior" to them (Heb 1:4). It is to this exalted state that our Lord has raised our nature; and it is to this exalted state that we are invited, if only we humbly accept our lot, and His mercy.


1. The Hebrew could be translated as "less than gods"; the Greek Old Testament and the Latin have "a little less than the angels."

2. Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on Psalm 8. Available online in Latin and English at 

3. James Lehrberger,  'The Anthropology of Aquinas's "De Ente et Essentia,"' The Review of Metaphysics, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Jun., 1998), pp. 829-847 (available on JSTOR for those who have access to that resource); Thomas Aquinas, De Ente et Essentia ("On Being and Essence"), available online at